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2019: 1.258 - 5 years IF: 1.610

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Author Archive

042_2_07_2019

maggio 22nd, 2020

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2019.42.15

RUIZ-FERNÁNDEZ J. & OLIVA M.,

Geomorphological processes in the Ala Archa National Park

Pages 255_268

Abstract

The Ala Archa National Park includes a wide range of geomorphological processes and landforms from the lowlands to the highest peaks. Here, we examine the distribution of geomorphological processes and landforms in the central part of the Tian Shan mountain range, Kyrgyzstan. Late Pleistocene glaciers shaped the landscape of the highest lands and left a moraine complex (M1) at the foot of the Ala Archa area at an elevation of 1580 m. The process of deglaciation followed different stages that favoured the individualization of glaciers within their respective valleys, with several moraine complexes (M2 and M3) distributed at elevations between 1680 and 3900 m. Today, debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers constituted the lowest parts of the current glaciers, with their fronts located between 3350 and 3670 m. All these glacial features are being intensely reshaped by periglacial, alluvial and mass wasting processes on the steep slopes of this valley. The wide variety of landforms and sedimentary records existing in the area allows inferring a sequence of several environmental and climatic stages since the Late Pleistocene. Finally, the distribution of present-day geomorphological processes and active landforms identified in the Ala Archa National Park allowed establishing four morphodynamic belts: montane forests (<2000 m), subnival (2000-2800 m), nival (2800-3200 m), cryonival (>3200 m, excluding glaciated areas), and glacial (>3350 m between the glacier fronts and the highest peaks).

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042_2_06_2019

maggio 22nd, 2020

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2019.42.14

TRAVERSA G., FUGAZZA D., SENESE A. & DIOLAIUTI G.A.,

Preliminary results on Antarctic albedo from remote sensing observations

Pages 245_254

Abstract

The aim of the study is to analyze the surface albedo of the Antarctica and investigate eventual signals of variations in space and time between summer 2000/2001 and 2011/2012 by means of the GLASS albedo product. We followed a step-by-step procedure from micro- to macro-scale. At first, we analyzed 95 glaciers around the continent, and we found limited temporal variability. Then, looking at spatial variations, we divided Antarctica based on oceanic basins and by continentality. We found spatial signals, since mean albedo values range between 0.79 (Pacific and Atlantic basins) and 0.82 (Indian basin) and between 0.76 (along the shore) and 0.81 (inner continent). An increasing variability was found from the inner continent to the shore, and heterogeneous patterns among the basins, most likely due to meteorological and environmental conditions (mainly: temperature, precipitation, katabatic winds). Finally, the general patterns observed (considering the specific glaciers, the three basins and the three continentality sectors) were verified by the analysis of the whole continent and we did not find a significant change of summer averages over time, as they range between 0.79 and 0.80.

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042_2_05_2019

maggio 22nd, 2020

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2019.42.13

VALLÉ F., FURLANETTO G., PINI R., BRUNETTI M., MAGGI V. & RAVAZZI C.,

Recontructing the last 3000 years climate change
in N-Italy from fossil pollen archive

Pages 235-244

Abstract

We applied a newly established procedure to quantitatively estimate summer temperatures during two different time frames (the last 3 ka, the last 200 years) from selected fossil pollen records in northern Italy. The adopted procedure involved three steps: 1) the development of a specific calibration set (modern pollen data and site-specific climate data); 2) the application of numerical methods to the specific calibration set in order to create pollen-climate models based on the relationships between these variables; 3) the application of these models to fossil pollen records. The evaluation of pollen-climate calibration models and of the resulting past climate reconstructions is based on the comparison with instrumental series and with other independent climate proxies.

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042_2_04_2019

maggio 22nd, 2020

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2019.42.12

VALLÉ F., FURLANETTO G., MAGGI V., PINI R. & RAVAZZI C.,

Concepts and methodology to quantitatively reconstruct climate from pollen data

Pages 225-234

Abstract

Pollen data are widely used as proxies to reconstruct past vegetation and climate changes. During the last decades numerical techniques have been developed to quantitatively estimate climate parameters from fossil pollen assemblages. This contribution introduces first the concepts and methodologies based on modern calibration sets to obtain past climate reconstructions. Then, focusing on high-elevation environments, the use of elevational transects as a tool for the evaluation of pollen-climate models and a temperature reconstruction obtained from an alpine fossil site are presented.

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042_2_03_2019

maggio 22nd, 2020

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2019.42.11

LIRER F., MARGARITELLI G., ALBERICO I., BONOMO S., CAPOTONDI L., CASCELLA A., DI RITA F., FERRARO L., INSINGA D.D., MAGRI D., PELOSI N., PETROSINO P. & VALLEFUOCO M.,

Climatic variability over the last two millennia in the Mediterranean area: a review from marine paleoarchives

Pages 215-224

Abstract

A review of the climatic variability over the last two millennia based on oxygen stable isotopic (δ18OG. ruber) signals from different areas of the Mediterranean Basin (Minorca Basin, central and south Tyrrhenian Sea, Taranto Gulf, south Adriatic Sea and Israel) has been proposed. The correlation of data testifies an almost synchronicity of the identified climate events, suggesting an homogeneous response of the marine system to climate oscillations. This overall picture documents that the collapse of the Western Roman Empire results chronologically related to cold event Roman III solar minimum and that the Roman IV solar minimum (Dark Age), marks the transition vs a long term cooling trend, spanning ca. 1100 years, that culminates during the Maunder solar minimum (LIA). In addition, during the Maunder cold event, the strong increase in abundance of planktonic foraminifer Globlorotalia truncatulinoides, suggest the establishment of vertical mixing during the winter season induced by strong winds linked to an atmospheric blocking event.

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042_2_02_2019

maggio 22nd, 2020

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2019.42.10

DI RITA F., LIRER F., MARGARITELLI G., MICHELANGELI F. & MAGRI D.,

Climate and human influence on the vegetation of Tyrrhenian
Italy during the last 2000 years: new insights from microcharcoal and non-pollen palynomorphs

Pages 203-2014

Abstract

The history of vegetation in the Italian peninsula during the last 2000 years was shaped by a complex interplay of several factors, including the history of human societies, changes in land use, and the succession of climate events. In order to disentangle these factors, we present a multidisciplinary record from a marine core collected in the Gulf of Gaeta, interpreted in the light of other palaeoenvironmental records from Tyrrhenian Italy. Pollen records, complemented by new data on Non-Pollen Palynomorphs (NPPs) and microcharcoal, are used to reconstruct changes in the vegetational landscape, stock-breeding activities, fire, and land use. Foraminiferal and oxygen isotope data provide independent information on climate changes. NAO-index and sunspot data support the interpretation of changes in atmospheric circulation. In this paper, by examining the effect of climate and human activity on the landscape during a series of periods of the last 2000 years, representing cultural or climate phases (Roman Period, Dark Ages, Medieval Climate Anomaly, Little Ice Age, and Modern Period), we found that human impact produced a general and progressive decline of forest vegetation. However, irrespective of the societal cultural phase, forest declines occurred when negative NAO oscillations induced dry climate, especially during sunspot minima.

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042_2_01_glaciological_survey_2018

marzo 31st, 2020

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2019.42.9

BARONI C., BONDESAN A., CARTURAN L. & CHIARLE M. (eds.),

Annual Glaciological Survey of Italian Glaciers (2018)

Pages 113-202

Full Text (PDF)

The complete list of the free downloadable CGI glaciological surveys, since 1928, is available HERE

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042_1_08_2019

dicembre 16th, 2019

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2019.42.8

HASSANZADEH BASHTIAN M., SEPEHR A., BAHREINI M. & FARZAM M.,

Microgeomorphology related soil characteristics determine the heterogeneity of biological soil crust communities.

Pages 99-112

Abstract

We examined how biological soil crust (BSC) communities are affected by micro-geomorphology and soil characteristics in an arid ecosystem in northeastern Iran. Sampling was carried out systematically in the summer of 2016 along a geomorphic gradient within an alluvial fan by using micro-scale plots (0.25 m2) and soil samples from the top soil layer (0-5 cm). According to the geomorphologic features and particle size distribution, the landform surfaces were divided into three units across the topographic gradient. From top downstream: Unit 1 involved coarse particles, Unit 2 included medium, and unit 3 comprised fine deposits., A total of 16 samples were taken for each unit (48 samples in total) along the alluvial fan from the apex to the base sector. The results indicated that micro-geomorphic and soil characteristics play an important role in the development of biological soil crust (BSC) micro-habitats. Decreasing content of calcium carbonate, pH, and soil salinity versus increasing soil moisture and clay content along the gradient of the alluvial fan showed a relevant correlation with increased BSCs coverage. BSCs increased along the landform gradient, although their diversity tended to decrease; in that way complex communities in the apex (Unit 1) involved cyanobacteria, lichen, mosses, and algae, while the dominant BSCs in the base (Unit 3) included moss species.

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042_1_07_2019

dicembre 16th, 2019

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2019.42.7

MÓGA J., KOHÁN B., CSÜLLÖG G., STRAT D., KISS K. & SURESH M.,

The geomorphological survey of the pseudokarst in the area of Lamayuru paleolake badlands (Moonland), Ladakh region, India.

Pages 87-98

Abstract

Lamayuru Badlands have developed in the area of lacustrine sediments of a former lake from Ladakh region, North-West India that was set up 35-40,000 years BP at 3,600 m above sea level due to a catastrophic landslide triggered by the neotectonic activity on the Indus Suture Zone. After disappearance of lake, around 1000 years ago, the exposed sediments, which had thicknesses up to 200 m and consisted of alternating beds of mud, clay, mud-clay, silt clay, sand, breccia, and carbonate rich beds, were partially removed by fluvial erosion. Also, due to lithological characteristics of the sediments, neotectonic activity and climate conditions, a peculiar badland landscape within a cold dry mountainous desert was created. The badland landscape, which evolved under natural conditions, is dominated by dissected east-west valleys and interfluves whereon overlap the semi-carbonate karst landforms expressed by a dense sinkholes network that resulted into topographic surface with egg crate morphology.

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042_1_06_2019

dicembre 16th, 2019

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2019.42.6

GONZÁLEZ-GUTIÉRREZ R.B., SANTOS-GONZÁLEZ J., SANTOS J.A., MARTÍN CANO, IRWIN J.R., GÓMEZ-VILLAR A. & REDONDO-VEGA J.M.,

Glacial geomorphology of the Sancenas karst massif (Cantabrian Mountains, northern Spain).

Pages 71-86

Abstract

With an extensive and high elevation surface (1800-1900 m a.s.l.), the Sancenas karst massif (Cantabrian Mountains) was home to a small icefield developed during late Pleistocene times. Glacial and karst processes are dominant in this region, generating many glaciokarst landforms which are uncommon in the glaciated mountains of Spain. Well-preserved moraines from outlet glaciers developed from the icefield are present. In several moraines outcrops, grain size and macro-fabric analyses were conducted to determine sediment origin and the extent of the glacial ice. An estimation of ice thickness and the position of the equilibrium line of altitude during the last glaciation were also accomplished. Three main glacial stages were identified.

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