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Author Archive

043_2_02_2020

aprile 12th, 2021

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2020.43.9

TAMBURINI BELIVEAU G. & ROBERTI G.,

High resolution SPOT DEM over large areas in central and south Andes and observations on the 2018 Perito Moreno glacial lake outburst flood.

Pages 209-220

Abstract

This study describes the use of multi-temporal SPOT 6 and 7 tri-stereo images for producing high resolution (3 × 3 m pixel) digital elevation models (DEM) over two large (2680 and 837 km2) mountainous and glaciated regions in the Argentinian Andes. The images were radiometrically adjusted to enhance matching over different light intensity conditions, allowing for photogrammetric reconstruction in zones of both poor texture and chromatic contrast. Independent point clouds were obtained from every image pair and contrast adjustment, and then merged into a single point cloud, which was cleaned from noisy points by an iterative filtering process. The first testing place, the Cordon de la Ramada massif, is in the Central Andes, an arid area with one of the highest density of rock glaciers in the world and some of the highest peaks of the Americas. The second is in the Parque Nacional Los Glaciares in the Southern Andes, host of the notorious Perito Moreno glacier which ends in the Lago Argentino, forming cyclical ice-dams with a consequent downstream flooding after dam-break. This work provides 1) a practical application to generate high resolution DEM from SPOT 6 and 7 tri-stereo images, 2) the first high resolution DEM over Cordon de la Ramada and Perito Moreno glacier, and 3) the March 2018 pre- and post- ice-dam break DEM for the Perito Moreno glacier, which provides the opportunity to describe this glacial lake outburst flood.

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043_2_01_2020

marzo 3rd, 2021

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2020.43.8

ONDRAČKOVA L., SURIAN N., NYVLT D & STUCHLIK R.,

Downstream variability of channel morphology and bed material in the braided Keller River, James Ross Island, Antarctica.

Pages 195-207

Abstract

Changes in sediment supply and water availability in rivers are associated with ongoing climate change and glacier melting. The processes connected with increasing temperatures largely determine braidplain activity within glacier forefields. This work focuses on downstream changes in channel morphology (i.e., channel width and braiding intensity) and bed material (i.e., petrological types and clast roundness), as well as possible controlling factors (i.e., sediment sources and sediment connectivity). The study area is the Keller River catchment located on the James Ross Island (JRI), Antarctica. This paper describes the 8.6 km-long Keller River in terms of morphology, including river braidplains, sediment sources and connectivity within the catchment. Eight sediment sources and three types were identified: one moraine sediment source, four debris- flow-dominated sediment sources and three fluvial-flow-dominated sediment sources. Along with high sediment connectivity, the occurrence of lateral sediment sources from tributaries significantly impacted downstream changes in channel morphology and processes. Channel width and braiding intensity showed an increasing downstream trend, although the channel width trend was irregular. As for bed material, sediment sources markedly control clast roundness with little effect of petrological properties.

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043_1_07_2020

febbraio 9th, 2021

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2020.43.7

VERGARA M.N., CARTON A., FRANCESE R. & BONDESAN A.,

The geomorphological constraints of the Italian/Austro-Hungarian Front in the Dolomites during the First World War.

Pages 157-165

Abstract

Many documents within the enormous historiography of the First World War on the Italian Front highlight the importance of physical geography, yet specific and systematic studies of the influence of morphology on war in the Alps are scarce. Geomorphology influenced the battles that occurred on the main passes in the Dolomites. Geomorphological and military history maps were created for four of the most important areas on this front. The steep and high valley sides, part of the unique geomorphological setting of the Dolomites, determined unassailable positions from which the defenders, with protected and sometimes relatively accessible rear lines, could control and hinder enemy transit through the valleys by use of crossfire. From this point of view, the alpine terrain, as the result of the morphogenetic processes that took place in the region, can be considered as one of the key geographical aspects that controlled the conduct and the outcomes of the fighting in the valleys and passes.

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043_1_06_2020

febbraio 9th, 2021

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2020.43.6

HENRICO I., HENRICO S. & COETZEE S.,

A comparison between two DEM products to calculate a visibility analysis for military operations using fossgis.

Pages 157-165

Abstract

Visibility analysis, commonly known as viewshed, is a valuable function in any geographic information system (GIS) and is a critical tool used for many applications, including the military, for representing the overall visibility and surface characteristics of the terrain. The first step to perform a visibility analysis is selecting the digital elevation model (DEM). This study conducted a comparative viewshed analysis, utilising the TanDEM-X 90m and the SRTM 30m DEM products to determine if the lower resolution DEM is suitable to deliver accurate and reliable viewshed analysis results for military purposes. Strategically placed observer points were used to calculate the viewshed analysis and determine if specific target areas (military bases) are visible or not. It was interesting to note that all military bases were either visible or not visible from all observer point locations for both DEMs utilised, however it is unavoidable that the accuracy of a visibility analysis is influenced by the quality of the elevation data source.

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043_1_05_2020

febbraio 9th, 2021

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2020.43.5

CARTURAN L., BONDESAN A., CARTON A., CAZORZI F., CUCCHIARO S., DE MARCO J. & PIERMATTEI L.,

The glaciated landscape across the First World War front: quantitative reconstructions based on digitized
historical images and modern techniques.

Pages 143-155

Abstract

The Italian/Austro-Hungarian front of the First World War (WWI) crossed several of the most glacierized groups in the Eastern Italian Alps. Photos taken by Austrian and Italian soldiers at that time document the state of various glaciers, in a period when measurements of length change were scarce or absent. Indeed, for many glaciers, the glaciological campaigns started or resumed only after the WWI, and this is the reason why the ‘1920’ glacier expansion is not well documented in this geographic area. In this work, we propose a workflow aimed at the quantitative reconstruction of some Italian glaciers from WWI photos, by using the mono- photogrammetric method also known as monoplotting. The workflow can be applied to any digitized historical image of a glacier, even in the absence of information about the camera position and camera calibration parameters, provided that a digital elevation model (DEM) with metric or sub-metric resolution is available.

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043_1_04_glaciological_survey_2019

gennaio 15th, 2021

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2020.43.4

BARONI C., BONDESAN A., CARTURAN L. & CHIARLE M. (eds.),

Annual Glaciological Survey of Italian Glaciers (2019)

Pages 45-142

Full Text (PDF)

The complete list of the free downloadable CGI glaciological surveys, since 1928, is available HERE

Posted in Senza categoria | Commenti disabilitati

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043_1_02_2020

dicembre 28th, 2020

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2020.43.2

STRAT D., KISS C., SZABÓ J. & MÓGA J.,

Geomorphological assessment of the Beciu mud volcano terrain, Eastern Carpathians, Romania.

Pages 15-30

Abstract

Mud volcanoes are widespread geological and geomorphological structures that are usually associated with folded sedimentary deposits bearing hydrocarbons. A significant number of mud volcanoes and gas seepages occur both in the extra-Carpathian area and the intra-Carpathian area in Romania. The most famous region in terms of number, geomorpho-diversity, and area surface of mud volcanoes is the Berca-Arbănași system, which is related to an anticline that belongs to the Buzău Subcarpathians division located in the southern part of the Eastern Carpathian belt, Romania. In this paper we present the results of geomorphological assessment of mud volcanoes from Beciu site that belongs to the Berca-Arbănași system, based on field surveys and drone mapping. The Beciu mud volcano terrain resembling a dome plateau has an area of a half hectare whereon are scattered around 50 active mud vents and gas vents, with a relatively quiescent expulsion of gas, water, and mud. In the area of Beciu site typical features of classical mud volcanoes were identified, as well as peculiar microforms that develop on the mud flows. Badland morphology has formed by the surface water runoff erosion of clay sediments outcropping in the peripheral area of the mud volcano terrain. Although the Beciu mud volcano site is not a protected area, its conservation status is favorable and no anthropogenic threats and pressures have been identified at present.

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043_1_03_2020

dicembre 23rd, 2020

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2020.43.3

DEAN S., PAPPALARDO M., FELJA I., JURAČIĆ M. & BOSCHIAN G.,

Karst landforms and prehistoric settlement patterns: a case study from Korčula Island (Croatia).

Pages 31-43

Abstract

This study is aimed at testing if and how a detailed assessment of geomorphological features in the territory nearby can complement palaeoenvironmental evidence revealed by the archaeological stratigraphy from a cave site. In the test site, located in the western part of the Adriatic island of Korčula (central Dalmatian coast, Croatia), the stratigraphy of the prehistoric cave settlement of Vela Spila reveals a tight relationship between postglacial environmental changes and human settlement patterns. In this work the territory outside the cave was investigated from a geomorphological point of view. A 1:25000 scale geomorphological map of the western part of the island was created through remote sensing and field survey. Two cores were drilled in Blatsko Polje, a large karst depression shaping the western part of the island to verify if the sediment record trapped in the depression was a suitable candidate for future palaeoenvironmental studies. The geomorphological context was also related to archaeological evidence from surface archaeological surveys in Western Korčula. The result of these combined methods shows a karst landscape typical of the Dalmatian coast and highly influenced by the island’s underlying structural and tectonic characteristics, with several landforms such as debris flows and pocket valleys indicating possible episodes of wetter, more erosive conditions both before and after the last ice age. The sediment cores from the Blatsko Polje, which is now artificially drained, show previous phases of intermittent flooding and a drier episode that led to the area being exploited more by humans in the Neolithic (8-4 ka BP). This is indicated both by the placement of archaeological sites of different phases around the Polje, and by finds of lithics, pottery, and microfauna in the cores themselves. Geomorphological analysis supports evidence of a tight relationship between environmental changes and human settlement patterns inferred from the cave stratigraphy and provides some information on the features of the landscape exploited by the cave dwellers. Finally, the polje infill proved to be a potential palaeoenvironmental archive (albeit an unusual one), that would warrant future investigation with higher resolution core sampling.

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043_1_01_2020

dicembre 10th, 2020

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2020.43.1

RACANO S., FUBELLI G., CENTAMORE E., BONASERA M. & DRAMIS F.,

Geomorphological detection of surface effects induced by active blind thrusts in the southern Abruzzi peri-Adriatic belt (Central Italy).

Pages 3-13

Abstract

In clayey-sandy regions, deformed geomorphological features, such as river channels and terraces, may represent valuable indicators of ongoing tectonic activity. In this perspective, geomorphometric indexes have been developed, among which the SL and ksn indexes seem to be the most efficient to detect tectonically-induced stream anomalies. In the present study, we used these indexes to investigate the possible activity of the easternmost fold-and-thrust system of the Apennine orogen, mostly buried under a thick sequence of post- orogenic, clayey-sandy marine deposits, in a sector of Abruzzi located between the Maiella piedmont and the Adriatic coast. Whereas most authors consider these structures tectonically inactive, several others argue that they still undergo compression. In particular, we used the SL and ksn indexes to identify surface deformations possibly induced by the ongoing activity of the buried structures. Moreover, based on geological-geomorphological field survey, supported by remote sensing and spatial data handling (TINITALY Digital Elevation Model, and the MATLAB® and QGis software products), we surveyed the tread profiles of river terraces in selected valley sectors. The investigation results agree in confirming the ongoing activity of the buried structures as well as the noteworthy effectiveness of the methods applied.

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042_2_07_2019

maggio 22nd, 2020

DOI 10.4461/GFDQ.2019.42.15

RUIZ-FERNÁNDEZ J. & OLIVA M.,

Geomorphological processes in the Ala Archa National Park

Pages 255_268

Abstract

The Ala Archa National Park includes a wide range of geomorphological processes and landforms from the lowlands to the highest peaks. Here, we examine the distribution of geomorphological processes and landforms in the central part of the Tian Shan mountain range, Kyrgyzstan. Late Pleistocene glaciers shaped the landscape of the highest lands and left a moraine complex (M1) at the foot of the Ala Archa area at an elevation of 1580 m. The process of deglaciation followed different stages that favoured the individualization of glaciers within their respective valleys, with several moraine complexes (M2 and M3) distributed at elevations between 1680 and 3900 m. Today, debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers constituted the lowest parts of the current glaciers, with their fronts located between 3350 and 3670 m. All these glacial features are being intensely reshaped by periglacial, alluvial and mass wasting processes on the steep slopes of this valley. The wide variety of landforms and sedimentary records existing in the area allows inferring a sequence of several environmental and climatic stages since the Late Pleistocene. Finally, the distribution of present-day geomorphological processes and active landforms identified in the Ala Archa National Park allowed establishing four morphodynamic belts: montane forests (<2000 m), subnival (2000-2800 m), nival (2800-3200 m), cryonival (>3200 m, excluding glaciated areas), and glacial (>3350 m between the glacier fronts and the highest peaks).

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